Thursday, January 23, 2020

The Day They Came To Arrest The Book Review :: essays research papers

My novel ‘The Day They Came To Arrest The Book’ was based upon racism in the late 70’s. An era which occurred before I existed. There are many movies and books depicting events from this time, some of which I have seen or read. I had always thought that my views on racism were somewhat close to the truth, after reading the novel I realized that I had been wrong. Therefore, this novel has altered my feelings and opinions which I had towards the treatment of the Negro race. Before I read this novel I had only ever seen the effects of racism from a white person’s point of view. After reading this I began to understand how life would have been for a black person during this time, and the effects which it would have had on their job, family and own self-esteem. The main point of the book was whether or not, 19th century novel, Huckleberry Finn should be allowed to be a part of the school’s curriculum considering its portrayal of racism. Having a mixed race school many opinions were voiced. In the novel, Huckleberry Finn was treated like the bible. The white people swore by it. To suggest it was wrong and inappropriate, as the blacks of the community did, was something which was frowned upon. Although most of the blacks recognized the fact that Huckleberry Finn held some truth of the past. Everyone is brought up differently, and most oftenly people’s views are a result of their parents views. My parents’ views on racism have swayed me lightly. Much of what I believe has been affected by today’s society itself. Since I have never experienced any first hand racism, the sort which was shown in the book, I have only this to go on. In the novel, nearly every black child sided with his/her parents. That was to throw the book out of the school. Their parents didn’t want them to be subjected to such a crude and negative portrayal of black people. Their attitude affected their children’s views. To everyone’s surprise, one child, was more open-minded. Gordon McLean a black child stated that he did not want to voice an opinion until had read the book. This I found strange considering his father, Carl McLean headed the protest committee and was the most narrow-minded person featured in the book. Carl McLean had grown up during a time where racism was alive and thriving and even though it wasn’t as strong during the present time he still didn’t want his son to go through what he must have been affected during this time.

Tuesday, January 21, 2020

County Community College Should Provide On-Campus Housing Essay

When I moved to California two weeks before school started, I had difficulty looking for places to live around County Community College. This is because community colleges don’t usually have on-campus housing facilities for students. This made life very difficult for me because I was brand new to the area and I knew no one. My dad did help me by calling up one of his friends and asked if I could stay at their house temporarily until I was able to find a place I could live at, that was near school because I didn’t have a car at the time. The day I finally found a place to live, school was almost about to start. When I went to check the house out, I really disliked it there because there was no cooking allowed, the only time I could use the stove was to boil water. There were even curfews enforced because poor wooden floorboards would alert everyone whenever someone would walk around just to grab a cup of water or a snack at night. Another limitation was that the landlad y had ridiculous shower curfews that I had to follow. The house was very unclean and unhygienic due to the lack of maintenance and care provided for the building. There was no other choice but to live there because it was the closest place to school, that was within walking or biking distance, I could find because I didn’t know how to take the bus in this new country. This is what leads me to believe that County Community College should see if it’s feasible to construct an on-campus housing facility for students because it is able to help a large variety of students in various ways. County Community is a college that is known for its successful transfer rates. An article on CNN Money discussed about County Community’s fine transferring rates, â€Å"County Community s... ...enefits that can affect current and future students. However, County Community may choose to overlook some obstacles due to the great convenience and the great benefits that it may provide for both staff and students. County Community should not disregard this great opportunity that may change lives for staff and students, but look further more into this. Works Cited Aquije, Omar. â€Å"Most Community Colleges say Building Dorms is Good Plan.† Glens Falls Post-Star, 13 August. 2011. Web. 7 Nov 2013. Clark, Kim. â€Å"Community College: How to Avoid ‘dropout factories.’† Cable News Network, 07 June. 2012. Web. 7 Nov 2013. Driscoll, Emily. â€Å"Great Housing Debate: Living On or Off Campus.† Fox Business. Fox News Network, 19 July. 2013. Web. 7 Nov 2013. Staff, CB. â€Å"Campus Living: On Campus Vs. Off Campus.† College Bound Network, 08 August. 2011. Web. 7 Nov 2013.

Tuesday, January 14, 2020

Porsche Cayenne

JOHN DEIGHTON JILL AVERY JEFFREY FEAR op yo Porsche: The Cayenne Launch In March 2003 the Porsche brand faced a challenge without precedent in 55 years. Since the e launch of the Porsche 356 in 1948, the brand had stood for expensive, high-performance sports cars. Its designs, varying little over the decades, formed and then came to reflect the notion of a classic n sports car. It was a connoisseur’s racing vehicle, engineered for speed and maneuverability. But it was also a rebel’s car; the car James Dean died in and that Tom Cruise ditched in the motion picture Risky Business.Always and everywhere, Porsches were sports cars. tC 2003 marked the end of this single-minded focus. In March of that year, it launched a sports utility vehicle (SUV), the Porsche Cayenne. The extension of the brand to a new product category posed many challenges. Looking ahead, the company had to think about how to position the Cayenne while protecting the Porsche parent brand. How much and in what ways would the Cayenne change Porsche’s image and brand identity? The company also had to decide what to do about the on oing consumer-to-consumer ng conversations in online Porsche brand communities.Some argued that online brand communities were an important source of consumer research. Others argued that the consumers who participated in the online conversations held views more extreme than the average consumer. Were they of any value in deciphering the market’s renegotiation of Porsche’s brand meaning? n No The Legacya Do Ferdinand Porsche was born on September 3, 1875 in Bohemia, part of the former AustroHungarian Empire. After a brief stint as Daimler-Benz’s technical director, he left the company, which did not want to build small, fast cars for the public.Unemployed at 55, Porsche started his own design firm. The staff grew to include some of the luminaries of German automotive engineering, Porsche’s son, Ferdinand Anton Ernst â€Å"Fe rry† Porsche, his son-in-law, Anton Piech, whose son became chairman of Volkswagen, and a handful of key en ineers. Ferr became head of ng ry research and development. a This section draws from Jeffrey R. Fear and Carin-Isabel Knoop, â€Å"Dr. Ing. h. c. F. Porsche AG† (A) and (B), HBS Nos. 706-018 and 706-019 (Harvard Business School Publishing, 2006). _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________ HBS Professor John Deighton, Jill Avery (Simmons School of Management), and Jeffrey Fear (University of Redlands) prepared this case. This h case was developed from published sources. HBS cases are developed solely as the basis for class discussion. Cases are not intended to serve as endorsements, sources of primary data, or illustrations of effective or ineffective management. Copyright  © 2011 President and Fellows of Harvard College.To order copies or request permission to reproduce materials, call 1-800-5 45-7685, write Harvard Business School Publishing, Boston, MA 02163, or go to www. hbsp. harvard. edu/educators. This publication may not be digitized, photocopied, or otherwise reproduced, posted, or transmitted, without the permission of Harvard Business School. This document is authorized for use only by Uma Jaidev at VIT UNIVERSITY until August 2013. Copying or posting is an infringement of copyright. [email  protected] harvard. edu or 617. 783. 7860. Porsche: The Cayenne Launch rP os t 511-068In 1934, Adolf Hitler asked Porsche to develop a family car that was both cheap and reliable—thus the â€Å"people’s car† or Volkswagen, was born. Its design was intended to evoke the German infantry helmet and honor National Socialist ideals. During wartime, Porsche focused on tank design, including the formidable â€Å"Tiger. † In June 1948, the company launched the 356, the first automobile to carry the Porsche brand mark. A Volkswagen factory manufactured the 356b, with its tubular spaceframe chassis, aluminum body, and rear-mounted four-cylinder engine, until Porsche opened its own production facility in Stuttgart-Zuffenhausen in 1950. See Exhibit 1 for company milestones. op yo In 1953, Porsche produced its first racing car, the 550. In 1964 came the iconic 911, also a racing car. Designed by Ferry’s eldest son, the rear-engine vehicle became a twentieth-century design landmark. In the 1970s, Porsche and Volkswagen collaborated on launching the 914. In 1972, Porsche became a joint stock company (Porsche AG) with the Porsche and Piech families on the board. Porsche AG was nearly derailed by the U. S. stock market crash in 1987.Sales volume collapsed from a peak of 50,000 cars in 1986 to 14,000 in 1993. 2 At the time Ferry Porsche commented: â€Å"I certainly have not given away my family name to sell off and cash out the company to the highest offer. This philosophy might hold true for Americans, but not for us. †3 tC In 1991, Porsche launched the first of several cars at price points lower than traditionally associated with the Porsche brand. The 911 RS America was a no-frills version of the long-running rear-engine 911 model; priced at $54,000, it ran about $10,000 under traditional Porsche prices.This was followed by the entry-level 968 at about $40,000, close to the $37,000 Nissan 300ZX Turbo or the $33,000 Mazda RX-7. 4 Design and production changes continued in 1992 with the introduction of a revamped, water-cooled 911, the 996. The decision to break with the past and replace the traditional air-cooled engine with a water-cooled engine was seen as a sacrilege to many Porsche purists. No Wendelin Wiedeking became Porsche’s executive director (CEO) in 1992. In the mid-1990s he steered Porsche through one of its most noteworthy turnarounds.He staved off bankruptcy by cutting costs, paring the product line to two models, bringing Japanese manufacturing processes to Porsche’s plant s, and expanding into 70 global markets—30 more than in 1993. 5 Do In 1996, Porsche launched the $40,000 Boxster, a zippy two-seater with an â€Å"entry-level† price. In departures from tradition, the Boxster shared 40% of its parts with the 9966 and was assembled by a third party contract manufacturer, Valmet Automotive, in Finland, rather than at b Porsche 356 Photograph Courtesy of Stephen Hanafin, http://www. flickr. om/photos/shanafin/432562761/, Porsche Racing Photograph Courtesy of James Emery, http://www. flickr. com/photos/emeryjl/4620731098/, Porsche 911 Photograph Courtesy of Collector Car Ads, http://www. flickr. com/photos/[email  protected]/4586382193/, Porsche 996 Photograph Courtesy of lacomj, http://www. flickr. com/photos/[email  protected]/3813925902/, Porsche Boxster Photograph Courtesy of The Car Spy, http://www. flickr. com/photos/thecarspy/2641636681/, Porsche Cayenne Photograph Courtesy of The Car Spy, http://www. flickr. com/photos/thecarsp y/47216338591. This document is authorized for use only by Uma Jaidev at VIT UNIVERSITY until August 2013. Copying or posting is an infringement of copyright. [email  protected] harvard. edu or 617. 783. 7860. 511-068 rP os t Porsche: The Cayenne Launch Porsche’s legendary Zuffenhausen plant. â€Å"We had no choice,† said Wiedeking, stressing that on-site German assemblers and engineers ensured that the Boxsters assembled in Finland were â€Å"100% Porsche†7 and just as good as those made in Germany. 8 The SUV Betc op yo In 1998, Porsche announced its plans to develop an SUV.By then, the 50year old firm was back on solid financial footing and its stock price was outrunning the national DAX index by 180% (see Exhibits 2 and 3 for stock and financial information). The Porsche Cayenne SUV would be the company’s third model series, joining the 911 and Boxster sports cars, and the first developed and launched entirely under Wiedeking’s watch. He wante d the vehicle to combine traditional Porsche styling and performance with off-road driving capability and a spacious interior, placing more emphasis on â€Å"sport† than â€Å"utility. The new car had to retain the brand’s style and panache while accommodating family, outdoor, and transport activities. Wiedeking felt that SUVs were â€Å"nearer to the sports car business than sedans. We also looked at minivans, but we do not want an eighth ‘me-too’ product. It has to be a real Porsche in terms of chassis, performance, and design†Ã¢â‚¬â€Porsche’s core strengths. 9 The average Porsche customer already owned three cars: an SUV, a sedan, and a Porsche sports car. 10 Wiedeking saw an opportunity: â€Å"We know from our surveys that a lot of our customers are waiting for a Porsche SUV.Then there will be no doubt that customers can proudly park their SUV next to a Mercedes S-Class and other cars like that. †11 tC Porsche wanted to leverage its premium brand to enter a hot, new market to capture incremental growth and to diversify the business to hedge against potential declines in the sports car segment due to economic fluctuations. The company observed other car manufacturers like BMW and MercedesBenz successfully leveraging their brands across a wide range of product categories and wanted to do the same.SUV optimists argued that Porsche had creatively found a way to diversify its aging model range in an oversaturated market. They estimated a breakeven number of 10,000 units priced between DM 100,000 and DM 120,000. By building 20,000 SUVs a year, Porsche could boost its total sales by 50%. 12 The SUV Market Do No In the late 1980s, the Ford Explorer legitimized the SUV as the quintessential American family vehicle. The SUV’s popularity with U. S. drivers was attributed to the nation’s historic affinity for larger cars and trucks that could serve for both work and personal use.This new breed of vehicle was viewed as innately â€Å"American. † Its rugged and powerful appearance, and the promise to combine the carrying capacity of station wagons with the off-road capability of pick-ups, offered an alternative to old fashioned family suburban and rural utility vehicles. The sporty and aggressive design appealed even to those who would never dream of taking a car into rough terrain, namely preppy, youthful professionals, including working women and stay-at-home mothers (colloquially known as â€Å"soccer moms†) who preferred not to be associated with station wagons and minivans.After Ford’s successful launch of the Explorer, other leading manufacturers both in the U. S. and abroad (Japan, Germany) followed with their own models. By the late 1990s, the SUV market was deemed intensely competitive,13 as many manufacturers strove to offer SUVs with car-like agility, the space of a mini-van, and the utility options of a sport vehicle. Fortunately for owners of such lar ge c This section draws from Jeffrey R. Fear and Carin-Isabel Knoop, â€Å"Dr. Ing. h. c. F. Porsche AG† (A) and (B). 3 This document is authorized for use only by Uma Jaidev at VIT UNIVERSITY until August 2013.Copying or posting is an infringement of copyright. [email  protected] harvard. edu or 617. 783. 7860. Porsche: The Cayenne Launch rP os t 511-068 cars (SUVs weighed 4,000 to 6,000 pounds; cars 2,000 to 4,000 pounds), gasoline prices in the U. S. remained very low by global standards. In 1998, light trucks, including SUVs, captured 51% of the new U. S. vehicle market, double the share they had 20 years before, propelled by a strong economy, demand for roominess (some even had 10 cupholders) and the perception of enhanced driver visibility and safety. op yoPorsche’s SUV would join an already crowded market, estimated at about two million units in early 1998. Still, the category ranged from pick-ups, light trucks, and small jeeps to high-end entries such as the Range Rover—the only SUV with a base price over DM 100,000. 14 A successful high-end, high-performance Porsche SUV could trigger me-too followers within two to three years, thanks to the compression of development intervals within the automobile industry. Already, Mercedes Benz was considering an M-Class SUV vehicle with a 300-plus horsepower engine. BMW was also rumored to be interested in developing what would later become the X5.Other European, Japanese, and American brands were looking into developing luxury SUVs, including Lexus, Infiniti, Audi, Lincoln and Cadillac. The potential for such new entrants threatened the sustainability of Porsche’s sales forecasts of 20,000 SUVs each year. 15 By 1996, the premium SUV market was proving its success. Sales of the 1996 Mercedes off-roader M-Class demonstrated a demand for luxury SUVs (see Exhibit 4 for SUV market information). Luxury/crossover SUVs targeted the high-end market with top quality interior amenities such as stylish materials (wood and leather) and lowered suspensions.Sales of high-end SUVs—those costing between $43,000 and $49,000—were expected to reach 300,000 in 1998 (up from 75,000 in 1995)16. Exhibit 5 shows SUV sales forecasts by region. Cadillac was expected to launch an SUV in 1999, and Ford was testing a 19-foot â€Å"crew wagon† with a V10 engine. tC Competition in luxury SUVs was intensified by major Asian players. Lexus, Toyota’s luxury auto division, saw its small LX 450 SUV grow to nearly 30% of all U. S. Lexus sales in just a few years. Acura (Honda), Infiniti (Nissan), and Mitsubishi already had luxury offerings in the U. S. arket. Nissan’s Xterra SUV was planned for 2000. 17 Launching a luxury SUV was an expensive bet for Porsche. R&D alone amounted to â‚ ¬300 million, and capital expenditures for new plant and equipment tripled between 2000 and 2002. 18 No Wiedeking was confident in his SUV strategy: â€Å"Our new sport utility ve hicle will not only correspond in full with Porsche’s high technical and visual standards, but will also pave the way for future growth potential in the sales, turnover, and earnings areas† he promised. 19 An SUV would give Porsche â€Å"a new dimension in both profit and revenues. 20 Fred Schwab, President of Porsche Cars North America explained, â€Å"What is going to distinguish us from them [Porsche’s competitors] is that they are making practical vehicles that are good off-road, but are essentially there to get your groceries and take a ride on Sundays. Porsche is in the business of making fun cars. The Cayenne will go faster, handle better and you will be more comfortable in it. It won’t swing and sway†¦ It will go from zero-to-sixty in 5. 4 seconds. This SUV will be fun to drive. It will be an SUV sports-car lovers will love. †21 Do By 2002, SUVs were under attack in the U.S. by cultural critics. Starting in 1997, Keith Bradsher, a prom inent reporter for the New York Times, spent four years writing scathing critiques of SUVs that culminated in a book launched in 2002 entitled â€Å"High and Mighty: The Dangerous Rise of the SUV. † In his articles and book, Bradsher debunked the widely held notion that SUVs were safer than cars and held up SUVs as a prime example of how American consumerism was contributing to global warming. Some began to question the long-term attractiveness of the SUV segment, predicting a move towards smaller, more fuel-efficient cars. 2 4 This document is authorized for use only by Uma Jaidev at VIT UNIVERSITY until August 2013. Copying or posting is an infringement of copyright. [email  protected] harvard. edu or 617. 783. 7860. 511-068 rP os t Porsche: The Cayenne Launch Bradsher also painted an unflattering portrait of SUV buyers, â€Å"Who has been buying SUVs since automakers turned them into family vehicles? They tend to be people who are insecure and vain. They are frequently nervous about their marriages and uncomfortable about parenthood. They often lack confidence in their driving skills.Above all, they are apt to be self-centered and self-absorbed, with little interest in their neighbors or communities. †23 Bradsher criticized SUV owners for buying SUVs with functionality that they didn’t need, citing auto-industry surveys that showed that less than one in 100 SUV owners took their SUVs off-road. Bradsher connected the SUV to â€Å"soccer moms† who were rejecting minivans and opting into SUVs as their vehicle of choice. Exhibit 6 shows consumers’ perceptions of SUV drivers and Porsche drivers. Listening to Consumers in Online Communities The Rennlist Community op o Web communities provided an opportunity to observe how Porsche owners reacted to the announcements and actions of the company in the months leading up to and following the Cayenne launch. The launch lit up the numerous and diverse online brand communities devoted to Porsche, as enthusiasts around the world came together to talk about this cataclysmic event in the life of their brand in chat rooms, web discussion forums, and blogs. One such community was Rennlist. tC Rennlist, www. Rennlist. com, was an international online community of Porsche enthusiasts founded in 1998.At the time of the Cayenne launch it had 36,000 active posters of comments and a lurker population of 200,000, a silent audience who read but did not participate in the discussions. Rennlist provided a virtual communal gathering place for Porsche enthusiasts, as highlighted in the site’s mission statement: â€Å"[Our members] look to Rennlist as their community, their international club—and their ‘daily dose’ of what we are all bonded by—an uncommon sense of loyalty to the Porsche marque as well as to other Rennlist members throughout the world. Rennlist was independently owned and run by Porsche enthusiasts and was not affiliated with Por sche, although some local Porsche dealerships enjoyed commercial sponsorship through advertising banners on the site. No One of the most used features of Rennlist was its web forums, online discussion boards where members engaged in ongoing dialogues with each other by first initiating topics of conversation with a seed post, and then listening and responding to others’ comments in asynchronous conversations. All posts were public and were archived on the website for posterity.In the words of a Rennlist member, the web forums simulated a virtual fraternity: â€Å"I haven’t had as much fun talking about cars in many years, than I’ve had on these forums. Many times it’s like sitting around a big roundtable with everyone having beers and telling war stories & giving each other help. It’s fraternity; and I appreciate it. † While anyone who joined could post to Rennlist’s discussion forums, the majority of posters claimed to own at least o ne Porsche vehicle. Most posters used a virtual signature which contained a list of their Porsche cars.The Porsche Brand as an Identity Marker Do Rennlist posts painted a picture of Porsche as an ego-expressive brand. While postings seldom addressed the issue directly, a sense of Porsche as a masculine identity marker was palpable in the kinds of topics discussed: the focus on performance metrics, engineering standards, and admiration for Porsche’s manufacturing and racing prowess. Occasionally, however, posts like this appeared: There’s super hot women everywhere, ignoring us†¦tons of hotties, no love (and in some cases a bit of attitude and contempt) from any of them†¦ ntil we walk outside and head to my 996. When it is apparent as to which car we are going to, I hear, ‘Mr. bald guy’ (I have 5 This document is authorized for use only by Uma Jaidev at VIT UNIVERSITY until August 2013. Copying or posting is an infringement of copyright. [email  protected] harvard. edu or 617. 783. 7860. Porsche: The Cayenne Launch rP os t 511-068 no hair) ‘Where are you going? Come back’ from a group of about 10 absolutely drop dead beautiful, tightly clothed, amazingly sexy women on the patio. (Rennlist post)Porsche as a socio-economic status marker was seldom expressed directly, and often expressly denied: I’d like people to see me in my Porsches and think ‘there goes a person who really appreciates his sports cars,’ not ‘there goes another yuppie with more money than brains. ’ (Rennlist post) Initial Response of Porsche Enthusiasts to the Prospect of the Cayenne Launch op yo Hostility to the launch of the SUV was intense. A scan of Rennlist showed conversations about the Cayenne reaching a fever pitch as the launch approached.Exhibit 7 shows the number and valence of posts over time. In the New York Times, the founder of Porsche Pete’s Boxster Board (another Porsche online brand comm unity), claimed â€Å"No other Porsche – past, present, or future – comes close to generating the kind of [on-line conversation] response that the Cayenne has. †24 Some posts suggested that a source of pride was about to become a source of shame. It makes me embarrassed of owning a Porsche†¦kinda like that relative you don’t want to admit sharing the same bloodline.Ugh! (Rennlist post) I am actually ashamed of Porsche stopping to be a pure sports car company†¦A SUV (SlowUgly-Vehicle)!! The ANTI-SPORT CAR, a heavy, slow, clumsy, and roll-over happy SUV will share the same emblem on its hood than our sportscars. Sad times for Porsche. (Rennlist post) tC Some Porsche owners posted that they were leaving the brand for rivals Ferrari, Aston Martin, or Maserati, after claiming that Porsche had â€Å"sold out. † Others collectively mourned the loss of the brand they knew and loved.As key design, engineering, manufacturing, and marketing decision s were released by Porsche, consumers used Rennlist as a place to vent displeasure. There just aint nothing Porsche in a SUV. (Rennlist post) No I have been exposed to Porsches since the age of 10. I have seen all the models come and go, but the Cayenne is the first non-sports car to come up and I really don’t like this direction at all. Porsche has always been synonymous with ‘sports car’ and now somebody can say ‘I have a Porsche†¦Ã¢â‚¬â„¢ and mean a Cayenne! I could not imagine a Ferrari SUV for example! (Rennlist post)Do Just as they had done with earlier models, enthusiasts criticized design and engineering attributes of the SUV. The Cayenne’s front-mounted, water-cooled engine offended â€Å"real Porsche† purists. Early photographs of the Cayenne were met with ridicule in the online community, and sparked many conversations about how ugly the Cayenne was and how it resembled the Hyundai Santa Fe. Some argued that the Cayenne’ s design was feminine and lacked the manly stance of competitors like the Hummer and the Jeep. Porsche enthusiasts were also dismayed that the Cayenne included unnecessary† amenities such as cupholders and a tiptronic automatic transmission, which suggested that the Cayenne was designed for drivers who valued luxury over driving performance. These features confirmed that the Cayenne was not designed as a driver’s car, but rather, that it was designed to appeal to what Porsche owners called â€Å"suburban, yuppie, soccer moms. † In online conversations, Porsche owners repeatedly called the Cayenne a car for â€Å"poseurs,† people who did not understand the history, 6 This document is authorized for use only by Uma Jaidev at VIT UNIVERSITY until August 2013.Copying or posting is an infringement of copyright. [email  protected] harvard. edu or 617. 783. 7860. 511-068 rP os t Porsche: The Cayenne Launch heritage, and performance of a Porsche, but who bought the brand merely for its status or imageappeal. 20 years ago, when you said you had a Porsche, people looked at you with envy. 10 years ago, when you said you had a Porsche, people looked at you with envy. Today, when you say you have a Porsche, people will reply: oh, those trucks? I got one of those too. (Rennlist post) I just felt really sad.Now ‘soccer moms’ can drive their kids around in a Porsche. Pretty sad. Look at the level that Porsche has been brought down to. BIG MISTAKE (Rennlist post) op yo And the people who will use it!!! Suzy-Housewife, as well as Dorky Dick who’s been beaten up through high school finally bought his first – ahem, PORSCHE got the A-OK from the wife – ‘so long it’s practical dear’!!!!!!!! (Rennlist post) The Cayenne will be bought as a car for the poser wife to take the kids to school, the only time it will go off road will be when it goes up on the curb.Come on how many real rear engined Porsche e nthusiasts will buy one. (Rennlist post) Product Development and Manufacturing Criticism No tC Porsche’s product development and manufacturing decisions figured prominently in the â€Å"real Porsche† debate and became fodder for arguments against the Cayenne. By spring 1998, Porsche was negotiating with Volkswagen to jointly develop and manufacture SUVs. Under the proposed arrangement, Porsche would undertake the research and development of the SUV and Volkswagen would invest about $657 million in the project. 5 The new SUVs would share close to 65% of their parts and modules—the same chassis and some technologies—but showcase different exterior styling, engines, and chassis tuning. Porsche would develop the two models as well as the common platform. VW would be responsible for major aspects of production, with final Cayenne assembly to be conducted by Porsche. 26 Partnering with VW was â€Å"an ingenious coup,† an observer noted: â€Å"Half of Po rsche’s profits come from the Cayenne. That model was developed in collaboration with VW and was built in VW plants. The car is 90 percent VW and 10 percent Porsche. 27 Skeptics worried about paying Porsche prices for a VW, but were assured that the R&D of the new model was purely Porsche’s domain, while its partner would oversee only the production of some major components, excluding the engine. 28 But as one financial analyst opined, the Cayenne would â€Å"push Porsche’s brand credibility to the absolute limit. †29 Porsche’s partnership with Volkswagen caused consternation among Porsche enthusiasts. Earlier Porsche cars produced with Volkswagen, such as the 914 and 924, had been criticized by enthusiasts as â€Å"faux† Porsche vehicles. Many claimed that the Cayenne was a â€Å"Porsche-ized VW† built with too muchVolkswagen content. When Porsche launched a V6 model of the Cayenne which contained a Volkswagen engine, instead of the Porsche engines featured in the V8 and Turbo models initially launched, Porsche consumers cried heresy. When some independent testers chose the Volkswagen Touareg over the Porsche Cayenne in performance tests, consumers cemented their skepticism and claimed that, suddenly, â€Å"there was a substitute† for a Porsche, and it was a Volkswagen Touareg. Do Porsche and VW do not seem to be in bed on this project, they are in bed on this project. They are both exactly the same basic vehicle.VW gave Porsche the chassis and said go and design a SUV if you want to be our partner on this†¦So the VW Toureg and Porsche Cayenne are both Porsche designed on a VW chassis and when they are pulled off the line to go up to Leipzig you will not be able to tell the difference. Only when the Cayenne leaves Leipzig will it look any different. When it has been Porscherised with engine and cosmetics. (Rennlist post) 7 This document is authorized for use only by Uma Jaidev at VIT UNIVERSITY unti l August 2013. Copying or posting is an infringement of copyright. [email  protected] harvard. edu or 617. 783. 7860. Porsche: The Cayenne Launch P os t 511-068 Sorry, the Cayenne is a Porsche†¦ While some of the design is shared with VW and some components built @ VW factories, Quality Control was still supervised by Porsche†¦ A good analogy to your argument would be having Emeril Lagasse prepare you a dish at his restaurant and then prepare the same dish at your home. Still the same dish, just produced elsewhere†¦ (Rennlist post) Enthusiasts were distressed to find that the Cayenne had a Japanese transmission. They saw this as a further decline in build quality that came when Porsche switched to Japanese manufacturing processes and away from its handcrafted heritage.In their online conversations, enthusiasts yearned for the days when their Porsche cars were Porsche designed, constructed from German-made parts, and manually assembled in Germany by racing engineers. op yo I was reading in Panorama last night that the Cayenne has a 6 speed tip tranny which is produced in Japan. Is this true? Seems like Porsche is just outsourcing as much as possible to keep profits high. Both my cars have Japanese parts (A/C), but nothing so substantial as a transmission. What's next, engines from the Far East? I'm less and less impressed every day I read more. Rennlist post) IMHO a German car with German Ing should have German parts, especially for something as major as the tranny. Isn't that part of the identity of the brand? oops.. forgot, Porsche doesn't value the brand identity that was built over the last 50 years anymore. The old professor [Ferry Porsche] dies and look what happens†¦ an SUV. (Rennlist post) No tC Personally the thought of purchasing a Porsche with some of its major components outsourced to the Far East is analogous to buying what you think is a fine Swiss time piece that turns out to have a cheap(er) Japanese movement inside.To me t hat would be unacceptable. Yes, both work, and work well, but the reason you bought the Swiss one in the first place was to get the hand crafted Swiss quality and workmanship that dates back hundreds of years†¦I certainly hope this will not be the future for Porsche cars. Those who know the real definition of build quality know exactly what I am talking about. Most Japanese stuff isn't even worth rebuilding, because it is designed to be replaced when it is done. The old German design and build philosophy was much different than the modern Japanese design (if there is such a thing) and build philosophy.Porsche cars used to be about hand crafted high quality performance, but all that seems to have gone out the window these days just to make more profits. (Rennlist post) Wiedeking defended his design and manufacturing decisions, claiming that Porsche focused on its core competencies: engine manufacturing, R;D, body shell work, assembly, quality control, and â€Å"highly professio nal† distribution, while relying on â€Å"extended work benches† at Valmet, VW, and its network of suppliers. It reduced its in-house production depth to one of the lowest in the industry, shared some components with VW such as electronics, and split R;D costs with VW. 0 Do Finally, Porsche’s decision to build the Cayenne in Leipzig, in the former East Germany, put into question whether the Cayenne could be a â€Å"real Porsche. † Rennlist members who visited the Leipzig plant brought back bad news. The Leipzig plant was little more than a final assembler, with most of the assembly work being done by automated machines. To enthusiasts, the Cayenne’s assembly in Leipzig put into question its â€Å"Made in Germany† moniker. Leipzig did not carry the German manufacturing heritage of Zuffenhausen; its location in East Germany was associated with the Communist era.Nice try, but aren't our Cs actually built out in some Skoda plant in Eastern Europe and then final assembled in Leipzig? This may explain some of the initial build quality problems. 8 This document is authorized for use only by Uma Jaidev at VIT UNIVERSITY until August 2013. Copying or posting is an infringement of copyright. [email  protected] harvard. edu or 617. 783. 7860. 511-068 rP os t Porsche: The Cayenne Launch I've read that the Eastern European manufacturing workforce has some of the attitudinal and work ethic habits of 1970s era Detroit car builders. God forbid. (Rennlist post)Here is a firsthand report of someone who visited the Leipzig factory on March 19, 2004: What amazed me most was how small it was. They really were just integrators and assemblers there. Much of the car (the upper shell and interior) comes in from Bratislava, and the power plant from Zuffenhausen. The tranny from Asia and it is all put together and â€Å"married† with 18 BOLTS! That’s it! Funny. After it is put together, they test drive EACH ONE on the track. I fou nd that to be very interesting quality control, and also a testament to the difference between a VW and a Porsche. Clearly, the Cayenne is not built in Leipzig.Leipzig is where the final assembly and final QC are done. I'm sure that the quality control of Porsche is much better than that of VW. But it is not a car manufacturing plant. (Rennlist post) op yo Having toured the factory in Leipzig two weeks ago, I can assure you that the Cayenne final assembly is mostly by machine, NOT by hand. The level of automation is amazing. It takes 170 production workers per day to produce 130 Cayennes per day. It takes 80 production workers per day to produce 2 Carrera GT's per day! (Rennlist post) And on their website they are boasting about how it's Made in Germany and what that means.Maybe the thing should say kinda-put-together in Germany. (Rennlist post) tC Wiedeking defended his decision to assemble in East Germany: â€Å"The Leipzig location brings our firm advantages, otherwise we would have never built the plant there. But we also create jobs in an economically weak region. †31 However, a Porsche spokesperson confirmed the importance of manufacturing location to Porsche enthusiasts, â€Å"[Location] is not an uncritical issue. People think that as a car comes off the line at Zuffenhausen, Ferdinand Porsche comes by and caresses the car with his hand, and that makes it an official Porsche.Of course, Ferdinand Porsche hasn’t been doing that for some time. †32 Hostility Toward Cayenne Buyers In December 2002, European dealers began to sell the Cayenne, and in March 2003 it was on sale in the United States. Postings by some Porsche owners took on a threatening tone. Try owning a Cayenne and see how you’re treated by other Porsche owners. (Rennlist post) No Oh and just so you guys know†¦you are the laughing stock of all other Porsche owners. (Rennlist post) One thing is for sure: the SUV is NOT my brother! I always accepted the other mod els in the family – the 928s, 924s, Boxsters, etc.They were all sports cars. But the SUV: never! (Rennlist post) Others echoed the earlier concern that the new car would shame them. Do People will buy these Porsche S. U. V. ’s because they’re a fad, and they’ll embarrass the real Porsche crowd. They’re not going to know how to drive and they’ll do stupid things. It’s scary to think about. (Rennlist post) There was a wish to purify the community by exclusion or ostracism. On the road, Porsche owners refused to extend their fraternal greeting to Cayenne owners, limiting it to sports car owners only.They tried to block Cayenne owners from joining local Porsche clubs and refused to allow them to race alongside sports cars in club-sponsored racing event. 9 This document is authorized for use only by Uma Jaidev at VIT UNIVERSITY until August 2013. Copying or posting is an infringement of copyright. [email  protected] harvard. edu or 617. 783. 7860. Porsche: The Cayenne Launch rP os t 511-068 So how about the Cayenne? Seems kinda funny flashing lights at an SUV even if it has a Porsche badge†¦Don’t think I can†¦ (Rennlist post) I’m with you guys on the Cayennes. I don’t wave to drivers of re-badged VW Touregs either. Rennlist post) Please don’t flash your lights or honk your horns at me. You will only see my longest finger back at you. (Rennlist post) My point it that all SUV owners should take their toys and play in their playground. NOT in mine. Find other SUV’s go to the track and have fun together. (Rennlist post) op yo There’s still one problem: A Cayenne, driven by the owner of other Porsche cars may be able to perform miracles that would embarrass all competitors in an autocross situation but the scary thought is that PCNA [Porsche Cars North America] are betting that many Cayenne owners will not be previous Porsche drivers.Having these people who could be un accustomed to a vehicle of such power, may very well overstep their abilities in trying to keep up (or prove themselves) to the rest of us and cause some real damage. Yes, I’m biased against the Cayenne. Yes, I think the whole idea of a Porsche SUV is a mistake. (Rennlist post) The newcomers would not understand the values of the community they sought to join. They have little of no feeling of belonging, no understanding of the lineage of Porsches and where their cars were derived from. They don’t care about that, most are probably just poseurs. Rennlist post) tC It’ll be piloted by folks who woulda bought the Mercedes Benz/Range Rover if there weren’t five of them in the subdivision already, who wouldn’t consider a Lexus because it’s ‘jap crap’ and who think BMW/VW is beneath them. They’re not enthusiasts, they’re consumers. They won’t know or care that old time P-snobs will shun them. (Rennlist post) Cayen ne Buyers Respond Some Cayenne buyers sought to broaden the Porsche community to include themselves as members of good standing, or at least to appeal to the better natures of the old guard.No This sense of kinship is getting lost due to lines being drawn between one group to another. (Rennlist post) I thought being a Porsche owner was like joining some sort of fraternity of something†¦ but it’s more like [Boxster, Cayenne] owners are the red-headed step child of some dysfunctional Porsche family. Did all entry level Porsche owner’s get this much crap when they bought their new Porsches? (Rennlist post) Do So am I to understand that you are allowed to rail against and hurl invective and others are not? Look. You like your car, I like mine.I’m not going to bash yours, and I go out of my way to salute yours. Why do you continue to bash my choices? (Rennlist post) Please start being nicer to each other. This is not the correct time to start having a go at each others throats. (Rennlist post from a site moderator) Sadly, the ranks of Porsche owners seems to be populated by those into model specific devisiveness and comparison pissing matches. Where once a camaraderie of enthusiasm existed, now lies a state of SUV owners looking for the next status symbol and those remaining 10This document is authorized for use only by Uma Jaidev at VIT UNIVERSITY until August 2013. Copying or posting is an infringement of copyright. [email  protected] harvard. edu or 617. 783. 7860. 511-068 rP os t Porsche: The Cayenne Launch few who love the maker of their dream cars fight with one another over which model is best and how effeminate or inadequate another model is compared to theirs. (Rennlist post) Spillover into the Offline World While the â€Å"real Porsche† debates raged on Rennlist, Porsche enthusiasts began to take their criticisms into the offline world.Consumer-generated-advertising spoofing the Cayenne made its way around the Internet ( see www. flickr. com/photos/alecmcint/447172 for a sample). Consumers circulated bumper stickers, license plate frames, and t-shirts for the Cayenne with slogans like â€Å"My other car is a REAL Porsche. † Cayenne’s advertising featuring headlines such as â€Å"Only one sport utility vehicle has bloodlines like these† and â€Å"Another twisted branch on the family tree† set off online rants. An article in Internet magazine Autoextremist captured the mood: op yoPorsche’s advertising campaign for the new Porsche Cayenne is the latest attempt to link its ungainly SUV to its greatest sports car and traditions, and in doing so it achieves a new low for the once-bulletproof brand by at once dismissing its own legacy and insulting the intelligence of every auto enthusiast—Porsche, or otherwise—in the process†¦A stretch that only delusional Porsche marketers could possibly attempt—and a flat-out insult to every great Porsche spor ts car that has come before it†¦To link it [the Cayenne] in any way to some of motordom’s most historic and legendary machines is an outrage. 3 tC What was said and done on Rennlist traveled beyond the online community. Compelling posts were often copied and pasted to other online communities and to personal and professional blogs. Press reporters used online brand communities like Rennlist to find consumers who were willing to talk about the brand in the press. Porsche owners quoted in news stories about the launch were longstanding, active online brand community members. The mainstream press began to reflect the online zeitgeist of the Porsche enthusiasts.Autoextremist warned that â€Å"[The SUV] threatens to destroy the very soul of the company,†34 while the Los Angeles Times announced that â€Å"Snowballs are rolling uphill in Hades. Porsche—shudder—will build an SUV. † 35 Porsche probably has the purest DNA of any sportscar maker. I donâ €™t care how good an allwheel-drive wagon is, it’s not a sportscar. If you add a car that does not fit with your brand’s image, you must reduce the power of that image. (Porsche consumer quoted in Herald-Sun)36 No Everything about the Cayenne is completely the opposite of what Porsche is and does.It will be the death of a tradition. (Porsche consumer quoted in the New York Times)37 It’s blasphemy†¦I’m not hot on the idea at all. I’ve lived with Porsches all my life and the marquee has always been Porsche sports cars. To bring out an SUV doesn’t sit well with me. (Porsche consumer quoted in the Los Angeles Times)38 Any truck made by Porsche deserves to be a failure. It’s a disgrace to the Porsche name. (Porsche consumer quoted in Autoweek)39 Do Cayenne Owners Become Assertive Cayenne owners began to speak in support of their vehicles.They deflected soccer mom, yuppie, and poseur stereotypes, claiming to be fellow Porsche enthu siasts. They told stories about how they would take their SUVs off-road, or use them to tow their Porsche race cars or boats, or to access adventure sports like skiing, hiking, hunting, and fishing. They bragged about the performance of their Cayennes and wrote of beating other sports cars, including the Porsche Boxster, off of the line at traffic lights. They described positive reactions they received from others. They referred to their 11This document is authorized for use only by Uma Jaidev at VIT UNIVERSITY until August 2013. Copying or posting is an infringement of copyright. [email  protected] harvard. edu or 617. 783. 7860. Porsche: The Cayenne Launch rP os t 511-068 SUVs as â€Å"sports cars† and circulated a revisionist history of Porsche in which the Cayenne is a logical descendant of Porsche classics. They reminded readers that Ferry Porsche was the driving force behind the Cayenne: By now, I gotta say the C [Cayenne] is a winner. It’s not really even an S UV in the traditional sense.It’s primary focus, like all porsches is performance, and with a straight face, I can tell you it’s pretty much a sports car with some suv traits. (Rennlist post) op yo You may not need a vehicle that can carry kids, go to the snow, haul a few things and is fun to drive, but that doesn’t mean no one does. The Cayenne may not match the 996 (almost nothing else does) but if it outhandles and outbrakes 90% of the vehicles out there, has great power, is fun to drive, offeres good utility, and has room for more of your stuff (including the dog) if that is required, why on earth wouldn’t you want one if you were ooking for that type of vehicle. Why wouldn’t ANYONE want one who can afford the price of admission? (Rennlist post) The Sports Car Owners Respond Not all sports car owners were hostile to the Cayenne. Indeed 18% of the first wave of buyers owned Porsche sports cars. As time passed, postings began to appear on Rennlist embracing the Cayenne. The posters noted that, unlike many SUVs built for the road, it handled like a sports car with sports car acceleration and nimbleness, yet had the ability to perform like a true off-roader and had impressive towing capacity. C All this over an SUV :rolleyes: And all this talk about how the newer porsches aren’t true to their sportscar heritage, seems to me all new cars are going this way, in the end a car company has to worry about selling new cars a lot more than selling old cars and new car buyers for the most part want all those luxuries†¦If Porsche thinks it needs a SUV to remain strong in the marketplace let them build it. Mercedes has an SUV for chrissakes are they any less of a luxury car company because of it? (Rennlist post) NoIf you’re really a Porsche enthusiast, you recognize that they’re first and foremost the world’s best automotive engineering firm, and the Cayenne looks to be more proof of that. Conceptually, I don’t see it as being that far away from the 928. I can’t imagine a reason in the world why anybody would care that it has four doors. (Rennlist post) Pity you feel that way. Do you wave to 914 owners? How about 924 owners? Who decides which Porsche are worthy and which are not? I know plenty of enthusiasts that have Cayennes as second vehicles. While the Cayenne is not my cup of tea I've driven a few and they are pretty impressive for an SUV.Do you really want to be one of those drivers that wave to some Porsche's and not others? No flame intended†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦ just something to consider. After all there are some out there that don't think a 986 or a 928 are real Porsche's either! (Rennlist post) Do I have to say that negative opinions (regarding what is and is not a real Porsche) DO, in fact, piss me off. Who the hell is ANYONE, other than Porsche, to say what is and is not? I, personally, would NEVER buy a 924. I don't like them. I don't like how they look. I think they are underpowered and somewhat boring. Is it a real Porsche? Of course it is!!!! You know why?Because PORSCHE built it and SAYS it is!!! Some shmuck who owns a 911 decides that a 944 isn't real. Show me how he is qualified to make that assesment. Does it have a Porsche badge placed there, at the factory, by PORSCHE Then it is!!!!! (Rennlist post) 12 This document is authorized for use only by Uma Jaidev at VIT UNIVERSITY until August 2013. Copying or posting is an infringement of copyright. [email  protected] harvard. edu or 617. 783. 7860. 511-068 rP os t Porsche: The Cayenne Launch However, the majority of the community continued to attack the Cayenne, relegating it to the bottom rung of the group’s status hierarchy.Feeling the pressure, Cayenne owners posted their feelings. So SICK OF THIS, like the Cayenne, and plan to buy one. I come to this forum to get updated info, whats new. What I find is the same people making post after post of the same thing, Its ugly, I d on’t like the name, why isn’t Porsche racing Bla Bla Bla. Do these same people go to the 914 forum and tell them their cars have VW motors, or the 924 forum and harp about Audi truck motors? (Rennlist post) op yo I have the V8 Porsche [Cayenne] and guess I get a little defensive when people call it a VW and I paid close to 69K for a quote un-quote VW.I know deep down in my heart that I have a Porsche (Rennlist post) †¦well, maybe the ‘bashing’ was mild this time†¦but its being going on day in day out for the past year†¦Yeah, I shouldn’t let it bother me†¦but after a while anything starts to wear thin†¦trust me. (Rennlist post) Any of you guy’s ever hear the expression ‘if you don’t have anything good to say don’t say it. ’ Almost every time someone is excited about purchasing this vehicle some of you guys have to post something negative. Please next time post what you drive so I can use ever y opportunity to tell you what junk you drive. Rennlist post) Looking Ahead No tC Porsche’s senior management shrugged off the negative buzz from consumers. Despite the withering criticism from consumers, shareholders, and the press, Wiedeking claimed he was not concerned, though he admitted that the decision to build the Cayenne â€Å"was certainly not selfevident. † He said that Porsche was â€Å"richly scolded† for moving away from its â€Å"brand core† so it knew that it had to be a success. Wiedeking argued that launching the Cayenne took the same courage that Porsche’s founder had demonstrated when he founded Porsche in 1931 during the Great Depression. 0 Schwab, Porsche’s North American President, labeled consumers’ response naive, â€Å"Those in the Porsche Clubs of America will castigate us for the SUV decision, but they just don’t know business. For them to keep having their beloved 911s, we have to find a niche else where. That is modern business. †41 Do Wiedeking and Schwab were already looking ahead to their next big launch, the Porsche Panamera, the company’s first ever four-door sedan. Envisioned as a rival to Maserati, BMW, Audi, and Jaguar sedans, Panamera would further diversify Porsche’s product portfolio and customer base. The Panamera is a perfect fit for Porsche,† Wiedeking professed, â€Å"It has all the typical DNA characteristics of a genuine sports car. In terms of performance, design, and driving dynamics, it meets Porsche’s high standards in every respect. †42 13 This document is authorized for use only by Uma Jaidev at VIT UNIVERSITY until August 2013. Copying or posting is an infringement of copyright. [email  protected] harvard. edu or 617. 783. 7860. Porsche: The Cayenne Launch Exhibit 1 Porsche Milestones rP os t 511-068 Ferdinand Porsche born Sept. 3 in Maffersdorf, Austria-Hungary. 1909 Ferdinand Anton Ernst (â€Å"Ferryâ€Å") Porsche born Sept. 9, in Wiener Neustadt, Austria. 1950 Porsche begins 356 production in Stuttgart-Zuffenhausen. 1951 The senior Ferdinand Porsche dies at age 70. 1953 Porsche introduces the 550, its first racing-specific car, which meets immediate success. 1964 Porsche introduces the 911. The company had produced 78,000 Type 356s in 14 years. 1972 Porsche KG becomes a joint stock company (AG). Ferry Porsche, chairman of the supervisory board, precludes all family members, including himself, from direct management roles. 1978 Launch of the front-engined 928 touring car. 1982 Launch of the 944 sports car. 1984A third of Porsche AG’s capital is offered to the public in the form of nonvoting preference shares on April 25. On Sept. 19, his 75th birthday, Porsche receives the honorary title of â€Å"Professor. † 1990 Butzi Porsche (Ferdinand A. ) succeeds Ferry Porsche as chairman of Porsche AG’s supervisory board. Butzi began his own firm, Porsche Design, in 1972. 1992 Wendelin Wiedeking becomes CEO of Porsche. 1996 Launch of the Boxster two-seater sports car. 1997 Porsche introduces its all-new, water-cooled 911 (the 996) at the Frankfurt Motor Show. 1998 The company prepares to celebrate 50 years of building sports cars with the Porsche name.Ferry Porsche, honorary president of the Porsche AG supervisory board since 1990, dies March 27 at the age of 88. 2001 Porsche releases its plans to build an SUV. 2002 European launch of the Cayenne in December. 2003 U. S. launch of the Cayenne in March. No tC op yo 1875 Do Source: â€Å"Porsche Timeline,† AutoWeek, April 6, 1998, and casewriters. 14 This document is authorized for use only by Uma Jaidev at VIT UNIVERSITY until August 2013. Copying or posting is an infringement of copyright. [email  protected] harvard. edu or 617. 783. 7860. Exhibit 2 511-068 Porsche Relative Stock Price Performance 600 500 rP s t Porsche: The Cayenne Launch January 1998 US$168 300 200 100 January 1997 US$87 Ja nM 90 ay -9 Se 0 p9 Ja 0 nM 91 ay -9 Se 1 p9 Ja 1 nM 92 ay Se 9 2 p9 Ja 2 nM 93 ay Se 9 3 p9 Ja 3 nM 94 ay Se 9 4 p9 Ja 4 n9 M5 ay -9 Se 5 p9 Ja 5 nM 96 ay -9 Se 6 p9 Ja 6 nM 97 ay -9 Se 7 p9 Ja 7 n98 0 op yo 400 DAX 30 tC PORSCHE DATASTREAM GERMAN AUTOMOBILE INDEX Do No Source: Thomson Financial Datastream, accessed February 13, 1998. 15 This document is authorized for use only by Uma Jaidev at VIT UNIVERSITY until August 2013. Copying or posting is an infringement of copyright. [email  protected] harvard. edu or 617. 83. 7860. Porsche: The Cayenne Launch Exhibit 3 Porsche Group Highlights 1995–2002 rP os t 511-068 1995–1996 1996–1997 1997–1998 1998-1999 1999-2000 2000-2001 2001-2002 2002-2003 â‚ ¬ million â‚ ¬ million â‚ ¬ million 1,437. 7 527. 7 910. 0 2,093. 3 671. 9 1,421. 4 2,519. 4 735. 5 1,783. 9 3,161. 30 955. 6 2,205. 70 3,647. 70 893. 2 2,754. 50 4,441. 50 1,001. 30 3,440. 20 4,857. 30 1,121. 00 3,736. 30 5,582. 00 1,482. 50 4,099. 50 Vehicle Sales Domestic Porsche Export Porsche Other Models Vehicle Sales Porsche 911 928 944/968 Boxster Cayenne Units Units Units Units Units Units Units Units Units Units 19,262 ,873 13,346 43 19,219 19,096 104 — 19 — 32,383 9,670 22,713 — 32,383 16,507 — — 15,876 — 36,686 9,174 27,512 — 36,686 17,869 — — 18,817 — 43,982 10,607 33,375 — 43,982 23,090 — — 20,892 — 48,797 11,754 37,043 54,586 12,401 42,185 54,234 12,825 41,409 66,803 13,896 52,907 48,797 23,050 54,586 26,721 54,234 32,337 66,803 27,789 25,747 27,865 21,897 18,411 20,603 Production Porsche total 911 Carrera GT 928 944/968 Boxster Cayenne Other Models Units Units Units Units Units Units Units Units Units 20,242 20,242 20,132 — 28 — 82 — — 32,390 32,390 16,488 — — — 15,902 — — 38,007 38,007 19,120 — — — 18,887 — — 5,119 45, 119 23,056 — — — 22,063 — — 48,815 48,815 22,950 55,782 55,782 27,325 55,050 55,050 33,061 73,284 73,284 29,564 7 25,865 28,457 21,989 18,788 24,925 Employees Personnel expenses At year-end â‚ ¬ million 7,107 392. 1 7,959 464. 4 8,151 528. 2 8,712 574. 9 9,320 631. 3 9,752 709. 9 10,143 799. 4 10,699 849. 5 Balance Sheet Total Assets Shareholders’ Equity Fixed Assets Capital Expenditures Depreciation Extended Cash Flow Net income before taxes Net income after taxes Dividends â‚ ¬ million â‚ ¬ million â‚ ¬ million â‚ ¬ million â‚ ¬ million â‚ ¬ million â‚ ¬ million â‚ ¬ million â‚ ¬ million 951. 4 239. 1 482. 5 213. 6 67. 7 ,249. 7 298. 1 565. 3 234. 8 107. 6 27. 9 24. 6 1. 8 84. 5 71. 3 13. 0 1,490. 9 415. 8 579. 6 175. 8 157. 1 413. 1 165. 9 141. 6 21. 9 1,916. 10 587. 4 525. 6 155 183. 7 592. 5 357 190. 9 21. 9 2,205. 40 782 577. 7 243. 7 196. 6 506. 5 433. 8 210 26. 4 2,891. 60 1,053. 30 731. 8 293. 8 132. 7 764. 4 592. 4 270. 5 45 5,408. 70 1466. 80 2,207. 70 1,119. 50 278. 80 1,067. 30 828. 90 462. 00 297. 00 6,315 1,754. 50 2,663. 30 1,295. 20 392. 20 1,389. 60 933. 00 565. 00 59. 00 Do No tC op yo Sales Domestic Export Source: Casewriters, compiled from data listed in Porsche Annual Reports, 1995-2002, http://www. orsche-se. com/pho/en/ investorrelations/mandatorypublications/, accessed December 2005. Note: HGB and IFRS denote accounting standards. In 2003 Porsche adopted IFRS, or International Financial Reporting Standards. 16 This document is authorized for use only by Uma Jaidev at VIT UNIVERSITY until August 2013. Copying or posting is an infringement of copyright. [email  protected] harvard. edu or 617. 783. 7860. 511-068 rP os t Porsche: The Cayenne Launch Premium SUV Market Information (1996–1998 forecast) (in units) Exhibit 4 400,000 350,000 300,000 op yo 250,000 200,000 150,000 100,000 0,000 0 1996 tC Luxury 1997 Upper middle class 1998 Middle class Do No Source: C asewriters, compiled from data contained in IHS Global Insight Report, â€Å"World Light Truck Industry Forecast†, 1999. 17 This document is authorized for use only by Uma Jaidev at VIT UNIVERSITY until August 2013. Copying or posting is an infringement of copyright. [email  protected] harvard. edu or 617. 783. 7860. This document is authorized for use only by Uma Jaidev at VIT UNIVERSITY until August 2013. Copying or posting is an infringement of copyright. [email  protected] harvard. edu or 617. 783. 7860. – –

Monday, January 13, 2020

The Host Chapter 42: Forced

Ian's jaw fell slack. â€Å"You†¦ what?† â€Å"I'll explain in a minute. This isn't fair to you, but†¦ please. Just kiss me.† â€Å"It won't upset you? Melanie won't bother you?† â€Å"Ian!† I complained. â€Å"Please!† Still confused, he put his hands on my waist and pulled my body against his. His face was so worried, I wondered if this would even work. I hardly needed the romance, but maybe he did. He closed his eyes as he leaned toward me, an automatic thing. His lips pressed lightly against mine once, and then he pulled back to look at me with the same worried expression. Nothing. â€Å"No, Ian. Really kiss me. Like†¦ like you're trying to get slapped. Do you understand?† â€Å"No. What's wrong? Tell me first.† I put my arms around his neck. It felt strange; I wasn't at all sure how to do this right. I pushed up on my toes and pulled his head down at the same time until I could reach his lips with mine. This wouldn't have worked with another species. Another mind wouldn't have been so easily overwhelmed by its body. Other species had their priorities in better order. But Ian was human, and his body responded. I shoved my mouth against his, gripping his neck tighter with my arms when his first reaction was to hold me away. Remembering how his mouth had moved with mine before, I tried to mimic that movement now. His lips opened with mine, and I felt an odd thrill of triumph at my success. I caught his lower lip between my teeth and heard a low, wild sound break from his throat in surprise. And then I didn't have to try anymore. One of Ian's hands trapped my face, while the other clamped around the small of my back, holding me so close that it was hard to pull a breath into my constricted chest. I was gasping, but so was he. His breath mingled with mine. I felt the stone wall touch my back, press against it. He used it to bind me even closer. There was no part of me that wasn't fused to part of him. It was just the two of us, so close that we hardly counted as two. Just us. No one else. Alone. Ian felt it when I gave up. He must have been waiting for this-not as entirely ruled by his body as I'd imagined. He eased back as soon as my arms went limp, but kept his face next to mine, the tip of his nose touching the tip of mine. I dropped my arms, and he took a deep breath. Slowly, he loosened both his hands and then placed them lightly on my shoulders. â€Å"Explain,† he said. â€Å"She's not here,† I whispered, still breathing in gasps. â€Å"I can't find her. Not even now.† â€Å"Melanie?† â€Å"I can't hear her! Ian, how can I go back in to Jamie? He'll know that I'm lying! How can I tell him that I've lost his sister now? Ian, he's sick! I can't tell him that! I'll upset him, make it harder for him to get well. I -â€Å" Ian's fingers pressed against my lips. â€Å"Shh, shh. Okay. Let's think about this. When was the last time you heard her?† â€Å"Oh, Ian! It was right after I saw†¦ in the hospital. And she tried to defend them†¦ and I screamed at her†¦ and I-I made her go away! And I haven't heard her since. I can't find her!† â€Å"Shh,† he said again. â€Å"Calmly. Okay. Now, what do you really want? I know you don't want to upset Jamie, but he's going to be fine regardless. So, consider-would it be better, just for you, if -â€Å" â€Å"No! I can't erase Melanie! I can't. That would be wrong! That would make me a monster, too!† â€Å"Okay, okay! Okay. Shh. So we have to find her?† I nodded urgently. He took another deep breath. â€Å"Then you need to†¦ really be overwhelmed, don't you?† â€Å"I don't know what you mean.† I was afraid I did, though. Kissing Ian was one thing-even a pleasant thing, maybe, if I wasn't so racked with worry-but anything more†¦ elaborate†¦ Could I? Mel would be furious if I used her body that way. Was that what I had to do to find her? But what about Ian? It was so grossly unfair to him. â€Å"I'll be right back,† Ian promised. â€Å"Stay here.† He pressed me against the wall for emphasis and then ducked back out into the hallway. It was hard to obey. I wanted to follow him, to see what he was doing and where he was going. We had to talk about this; I had to think it through. But I had no time. Jamie was waiting for me, with questions that I couldn't answer with lies. No, he wasn't waiting for me; he was waiting for Melanie. How could I have done this? What if she was really gone? Mel, Mel, Mel, come back! Melanie, Jamie needs you. Not me-he needs you. He's sick, Mel. Mel, can you hear that? Jamie is sick! I was talking to myself. No one heard. My hands were trembling with fear and stress. I wouldn't be able to wait here much longer. I felt like the anxiety was going to make me swell until I popped. Finally, I heard footsteps. And voices. Ian wasn't alone. Confusion swept through me. â€Å"Just think of it as†¦ an experiment,† Ian was saying. â€Å"Are you crazy?† Jared answered. â€Å"Is this some sick joke?† My stomach dropped through the floor. Overwhelmed. That's what he'd meant. Blood burned in my face, hot as Jamie's fever. What was Ian doing to me? I wanted to run, to hide somewhere better than my last hiding place, somewhere I could never, ever be found, no matter how many flashlights they used. But my legs were shaking, and I couldn't move. Ian and Jared came into view in the room where the tunnels met. Ian's face was expressionless; he had one hand on Jared's shoulder and was guiding him, almost pushing him forward. Jared was staring at Ian with anger and doubt. â€Å"Through here,† Ian encouraged, forcing Jared toward me. I flattened my back against the rock. Jared saw me, saw my mortified expression, and stopped. â€Å"Wanda, what's this about?† I threw Ian one blazing glance of reproach and then tried to meet Jared's eyes. I couldn't do it. I looked at his feet instead. â€Å"I lost Melanie,† I whispered. â€Å"You lost her!† I nodded miserably. His voice was hard and angry. â€Å"How?† â€Å"I'm not sure. I made her be quiet†¦ but she always comes back†¦ always before†¦ I can't hear her now†¦ and Jamie†¦Ã¢â‚¬  â€Å"She's gone?† Muted agony in his voice. â€Å"I don't know. I can't find her.† Deep breath. â€Å"Why does Ian think I have to kiss you?† â€Å"Not kiss me,† I said, my voice so faint I could barely hear it myself. â€Å"Kiss her. Nothing upset her more than when you kissed us†¦ before. Nothing pulled her to the surface like that. Maybe†¦ No. You don't have to. I'll try to find her myself.† I still had my eyes on his feet, so I saw him step toward me. â€Å"You think, if I kiss her†¦?† I couldn't even nod. I tried to swallow. Familiar hands brushed my neck, tracing down either side to my shoulders. My heart thudded loud enough that I wondered if he could hear it. I was so embarrassed, forcing him to touch me this way. What if he thought it was a trick-my idea, not Ian's? I wondered if Ian was still there, watching. How much would this hurt him? One hand continued, as I knew it would, down my arm to my wrist, leaving a trail of fire behind it. The other cupped beneath my jaw, as I knew it must, and pulled my face up. His cheek pressed against mine, the skin burning where we were connected, and he whispered in my ear. â€Å"Melanie. I know you're there. Come back to me.† His cheek slowly slid back, and his chin tilted to the side so that his mouth covered mine. He tried to kiss me softly. I could tell that he tried. But his intentions went up in smoke, just like before. There was fire everywhere, because he was everywhere. His hands traced my skin, burning it. His lips tasted every inch of my face. The rock wall slammed into my back, but there was no pain. I couldn't feel anything besides the burning. My hands knotted in his hair, pulling him to me as if there were any possible way for us to be closer. My legs wrapped around his waist, the wall giving me the leverage I needed. His tongue twisted with mine, and there was no part of my mind that was not invaded by the insane desire that possessed me. He pulled his mouth free and pressed his lips to my ear again. â€Å"Melanie Stryder!† It was so loud in my ear, a growl that was almost a shout. â€Å"You will not leave me. Don't you love me? Prove it! Prove it! Damn it, Mel! Get back here!† His lips attacked mine again. Ahhh, she groaned weakly in my head. I couldn't think to greet her. I was on fire. The fire burned its way to her, back to the tiny corner where she drooped, nearly lifeless. My hands fisted around the fabric of Jared's T-shirt, yanking it up. This was their idea; I didn't tell them what to do. His hands burned on the skin of my back. Jared? she whispered. She tried to orient herself, but the mind we shared was so disoriented. I felt the muscles of his stomach under my palms, my hands crushed between us. What? Where†¦ Melanie struggled. I broke away from his mouth to breathe, and his lips scorched their way down my throat. I buried my face in his hair, inhaling the scent. Jared! Jared! NO! I let her flow through my arms, knowing this was what I wanted, though I could barely pay attention now. The hands on his stomach turned hard, angry. The fingers clawed at his skin and then shoved him as hard as they could. â€Å"NO!† she shouted through my lips. Jared caught her hands, then caught me against the wall before I could fall. I sagged, my body confused by the conflicting directions it was receiving. â€Å"Mel? Mel!† â€Å"What are you doing?† He groaned in relief. â€Å"I knew you could do it! Ah, Mel!† He kissed her again, kissed the lips that she now controlled, and we could both taste the tears that ran down his face. She bit him. Jared jumped back from us, and I slid to the floor, landing in a wilted heap. He started laughing. â€Å"That's my girl. You still got her, Wanda?† â€Å"Yes,† I gasped. What the hell, Wanda? she screeched at me. Where have you been? Do you have any idea what I've been going through trying to find you? Yeah, I can see that you were really suffering. Oh, I'll suffer, I promised her. I could already feel it coming on. Just like before†¦ She was flipping through my thoughts as fast as she could. Jamie? That's what I've been trying to tell you. He needs you. Then why aren't we with him? Because he's probably a bit young to watch this kind of thing. She searched through some more. Wow, Ian, too. I'm glad I missed that part. I was so worried. I didn't know what to do†¦ Well, c'mon. Let's go. â€Å"Mel?† Jared asked. â€Å"She's here. She's furious. She wants to see Jamie.† Jared put his arm around me and helped me up. â€Å"You can be as mad as you want, Mel. Just stick around.† How long was I gone? Three days is all. Her voice was suddenly smaller. Where was I? You don't know? I can't remember†¦ anything. We shuddered. â€Å"You okay?† Jared asked. â€Å"Sort of.† â€Å"Was that her before, talking to me-talking out loud?† â€Å"Yes.† â€Å"Can she†¦ can you let her do that now?† I sighed. I was already exhausted. â€Å"I can try.† I closed my eyes. Can you get past me? I asked her. Can you talk to him? I†¦ How? Where? I tried to flatten myself against the inside of my head. â€Å"C'mon,† I murmured. â€Å"Here.† Melanie struggled, but there was no way out. Jared's lips came down on mine, hard. My eyes flew open in shock. His gold-flecked eyes were open, too, half an inch away. She jerked our head back. â€Å"Cut that out! Don't touch her!† He smiled, the little creases feathering out around his eyes. â€Å"Hey, baby.† That's not funny. I tried to breathe again. â€Å"She's not laughing.† He left his arm around me. Around us. We walked out into the tunnel junction, and there was no one there. No Ian. â€Å"I'm warning you, Mel,† Jared said, still smiling widely. Teasing. â€Å"You better stay right here. I'm not making any guarantees about what I will or won't do to get you back.† My stomach fluttered. Tell him I'll throttle him if he touches you like that again. But her threat was a joke, too. â€Å"She's threatening your life right now,† I told him. â€Å"But I think she's being facetious.† He laughed, giddy with relief. â€Å"You're so serious all the time, Wanda.† â€Å"Your jokes aren't funny,† I muttered. Not to me. Jared laughed again. Ah, Melanie said. You are suffering. I'll try not to let Jamie see. Thank you for bringing me back. I won't erase you, Melanie. I'm sorry I can't give you more than that. Thank you. â€Å"What's she saying?† â€Å"We're just†¦ making up.† â€Å"Why couldn't she talk before, when you were trying to let her?† â€Å"I don't know, Jared. There really isn't enough room for both of us. I can't seem to get myself out of the way completely. It's like†¦ not like holding your breath. Like trying to pause your heartbeats. I can't make myself not exist. I don't know how.† He didn't answer, and my chest throbbed with pain. How joyful he would be if I could figure out how to erase myself! Melanie wanted to†¦ not to contradict me, but to make me feel better; she struggled to find words to soften my agony. She couldn't come up with the right ones. But Ian would be devastated. And Jamie. Jeb would miss you. You have so many friends here. Thanks. I was glad that we were back to our room now. I needed to think about something else before I started crying. Now wasn't the time for self-pity. There were more important issues at hand than my heart, breaking yet again.

Monday, January 6, 2020

Final Essay Ethics - 5945 Words

Final Essay A Case Study of Roche’s Drug Trials in China Introduction In business we must evaluate decisions along ethical lines and we must recognize that, for the long-term benefit of society, we cannot always make these decisions based simply upon a profit motive. The following case exemplifies the complexities inherent in business decisions. The case examined addresses whether it is worth doing something ethically questionable for the sake of a justified end. In 2010, the pharmaceutical company Roche came under fire from Traidos Bank, the Berne Declaration, Greenpeace, and other critics for its policy of testing an organ transplantation drug called CellCept in China. CellCept is a drug designed to â€Å"prevent the rejection of†¦show more content†¦As Roche makes clear, â€Å"CellCept was a medicine which had saved and continued to save thousands of patients’ lives by preventing post-transplant organ rejection.† If CellCept can receive regulatory approval in China then it could improve the lives of many people, as well as save them from other costly or less effective alternatives. In order to properly conduct an ethical analysis of this case study, each relevant party must be distinctly identified. The primary decision maker, the pharmaceutical company Roche, holds an interest in the revenues it would receive from regulatory approval. While it is easy to assume that businesses are driven solely by the profit motiv e, the company spokesperson’s statement, â€Å"Withdrawing [CellCept] from the market in any country would be morally unthinkable†, indicates that Roche may be legitimately interested in the welfare of its end users. The party most impacted by Roche’s decision is medical patients waiting for organ transplants in China. This party is actually made up of two categories: those patients who will participate in Roche drug trials, and those who would receive the drug CellCept only in the event of Chinese regulatory approval. We can assume both of these groups belong to the same patient party for the following reasons. First, Roche has indicated that independent institutions conduct organ procurement, and we have been given no information to indicate that procurement procedures are different for test patients asShow MoreRelatedMedical Ethics Final Essay : Medicine1553 Words   |  7 Pages Medical Ethics Final Essay Salem Mojadidi CSU Eastbay Professor Smith HSC 3720 November 21, 2014 The day I woke up and realized that my cousins were randomly sleeping on my bedroom floor knew there was something wrong; I was right. 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Sunday, January 5, 2020

Did Antonio Meucci Invent the Telephone

Who was the first inventor of the telephone and would Antonio Meucci have won his case against  Alexander Graham Bell  if he had lived to see it adjudicated? Bell  was the first person to patent the telephone, and his company was the first to bring telephone services successfully to the marketplace. But people are passionate in putting forward other inventors who deserve the credit. These include Meucci, who accused Bell of stealing his ideas. Another example is  Elisha Gray,  who  almost patented the telephone before Alexander Graham Bell did. There are a few other inventors who have invented or claimed a telephone system  including  Johann Philipp Reis, Innocenzo Manzetti, Charles Bourseul, Amos Dolbear, Sylvanus Cushman, Daniel Drawbaugh, Edward Farrar, and James McDonough. Antonio Meucci and the Patent Caveat for the Telephone Antonio Meucci filed a patent caveat for a telephone device in December of 1871. Patent caveats according to the law were a description of an invention, intended to be patented, lodged in the patent office before the patent was applied for, and operated as a bar to the issue of any patent to any other person regarding the same invention. Caveats lasted one year and were renewable. They are no longer issued. Patent caveats were much less costly than a full patent application and required a less detailed description of the invention. The U.S. Patent Office would note the subject matter of the caveat and hold it in confidentiality. If within the year another inventor filed a patent application for a similar invention, the Patent Office notified the holder of the caveat, who then had three months to submit a formal application. Antonio Meucci did not renew his caveat after 1874, and Alexander Graham Bell was granted a patent in March of 1876. It should be pointed out that a caveat does not guarantee that a patent will be granted, or what the scope of that patent will be. Antonio Meucci was granted fourteen patents for other inventions, which leads me to question the reasons that Meucci did not file a patent application for his telephone, when patents were granted to him in 1872, 1873, 1875, and 1876. Author Tom Farley says, Like Gray, Meucci claims Bell stole his ideas. To be true, Bell must have falsified every notebook and letter he wrote about coming to his conclusions. That is, it is not enough to steal, you must provide a false story about how you came along on the path to discovery. You must falsify each step toward invention. Nothing in Bells writing, character, or his life after 1876 suggest he did so, indeed, in the more than 600 lawsuits which involved him, no one else was credited for inventing the telephone. In 2002, the U.S. House of Representatives passed Resolution 269, Sense of the House Honoring the Life and Achievements of 19th Century Italian-American Inventor Antonio Meucci. Congressman Vito Fossella who sponsored the bill told the press, Antonio Meucci was a man of vision whose enormous talents led to the invention of the telephone, Meucci began work on his invention in the mid-1880s, refining and perfecting the telephone during his many years living on Staten Island.  However, I do not interpret the carefully worded resolution to mean that Antonio Meucci invented the first telephone or that Bell had stolen Meuccis design and deserved no credit. Are politicians now our historians? The issues between Bell and Meucci were headed to trial and that trial never happened, we do not know what the outcome would have been. Antonio Meucci was an accomplished inventor and deserves our recognition and respect. He patented other inventions. I respect those who have a different opinion than me. Mine is that several inventors independently worked on a telephone device and that Alexander Graham Bell was the first to patent his and was the most successful in bringing the telephone to market. I invite my readers to draw their own conclusions.   Meucci Resolution - H.Res.269 Here is a plain English synopsis and extracts with the whereas language of the resolution removed. You can read the full version on the Congress.gov website. He immigrated to New York from Cuba and worked on a creating an electronic communications project he called the teletrofono that linked different rooms and floors of his house on Staten Island. But he exhausted his savings and couldnt commercialize his invention, though he demonstrated his invention in 1860 and had a description of it published in New Yorks Italian language newspaper. Antonio Meucci never learned English well enough to navigate the complex American business community. He was unable to raise sufficient funds to pay his way through the patent application process, and thus had to settle for a caveat, a one-year renewable notice of an impending patent, which was first filed on December 28, 1871. Meucci later learned that the Western Union affiliate laboratory reportedly lost his working models, and Meucci, who at this point was living on public assistance, was unable to renew the caveat after 1874. In March 1876, Alexander Graham Bell, who conducted experiments in the same laboratory where Meuccis materials had been stored, was granted a patent and was thereafter credited with inventing the telephone. On January 13, 1887, the Government of the United States moved to annul the patent issued to Bell on the grounds of fraud and misrepresentation, a case that the Supreme Court found viable and remanded for trial. Meucci died in October 1889, the Bell patent expired in January 1893, and the case was discontinued as moot without ever reaching the underlying issue of the true inventor of the telephone entitled to the patent. Finally, if Meucci had been able to pay the $10 fee to maintain the caveat after 1874, no patent could have been issued to Bell. Antonio Meucci - Patents 1859 - US Patent No. 22,739 - candle mold1860 - US Patent No. 30,180 - candle mold1862 - US Patent No. 36,192 - lamp burner1862 - US Patent No. 36,419 - improvement in treating kerosene1863 - US Patent No. 38,714 -  improvement in preparing hydrocarbon liquid1864 - US Patent No. 44,735 - improved process for removing mineral, gummy, and resinous substances from vegetables1865 - US Patent No. 46,607 - improved method of making wicks1865 - US Patent No. 47,068 - improved process for removing mineral, gummy, and resinous substances from vegetables1866 - US Patent No. 53,165 - improved process for making paper-pulp from wood1872 - US Patent No. 122,478 - improved method of manufacturing effervescent drinks from fruits1873 - US Patent No. 142,071 - improvement in sauces for food1875 - US Patent No. 168,273 - method of testing milk1876 - US Patent No. 183,062 - hygrometer1883 - US Patent No. 279,492 - plastic paste

Sunday, December 29, 2019

Learning PHP Five Essentials to Getting Started

PHP is a programming language used to enhance websites built with HTML. It is server-side code that can add a log-in screen, CAPTCHA code or survey to your website, redirect visitors to other pages or construct a calendar. The Essentials for Learning PHP Learning a new language—programming or otherwise—can be a bit overwhelming. Many people dont know where to start and give up before they begin. Learning PHP is not as overwhelming as it might seem. Just take it one step at a time, and before you know it, youll be off and running. Basic Knowledge Before you start learning PHP you need a basic understanding of HTML. If you already have it, great. If not there are plenty of HTML articles and tutorials to help you. When you know both languages, you can switch between PHP and HTML right in the same document. You can even run PHP from an HTML file. Tools When creating PHP pages, you can use the same software you use to create your HTML pages. Any plain text editor will do. You also need an FTP client to transfer files from your computer to your web host. If you already have an HTML website, you most likely already use an FTP program. The Basics The basic skills you need to master first include: How to begin and end PHP code using ?php and ? respectively.How to leave comments that dont execute in the code; they just inform programmers who work on your code in the future (or remind you of your thinking).How to use the echo and print statements.How to set a variable.How to use an array.How to use operators and operands.How to use conditional statements and nested statements. Start with this PHP Basics tutorial to learn about all these basic skills. Learning Loops After you master the basic skills, it is time to learn about loops. A loop evaluates a statement as true or false. When it is true, it executes code and then alters the original statement and starts over again by re-evaluating it. It continues to loop through the code like this until the statement becomes false. There are several different types of loops including while and for loops. They are explained in this Learning Loops tutorial. PHP Functions A function performs a specific task. Programmers write functions when they plan to do the same task repeatedly. You only have to write the function once, which saves time and space. PHP comes with a set of predefined functions, but you can learn to write your own custom functions. From here, the sky is the limit. With a solid knowledge of the PHP basics, adding PHP functions to your arsenal when you need them is easy. Now What? Where can you go from here? Check out 10 Cool Things to Do With PHP for ideas you can use to enhance your website.